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Basic Theory of Grammar being Researched on this Site   (6 June 2007)



1. Two clear choices of “words” or “word parts”

  The words categorized as “words” and “word parts” are as follows:

1. Words used for expressing objective meanings
  (Watashi, Kimono, Dare, Hanashi, Aruki, Utsukushi, Hobo, Yukkuri…)

2. Words not used for expressing objective meanings
  (~ wa, ~ ga, ~ mo, ~ da, ~ datta, ~ darou, ~ noda…)

1. Words used for expressing objective meanings
  - Meanings that can be explained objectively
  - Used to express the cognitional object

2. Words not used for expressing objective meanings
  - Meanings that cannot be explained objectively
  - Used to express something other than the cognitional object

  For the purpose of expediency, 1 will hereinafter be abbreviated to S (semanteme) and 2 will be abbreviated to M (morpheme).

  Not all words are not categorized into either S or M alone, but into the following three types:
  Type #1: Words that can only be used as S
  Type #2: Words that can only be used as M
  Type #3: Words that can be used as either S or M


2. The something other than the cognitional object is "this" opposing to object.

Once again the following propositions reappear:
  - S is used to express the cognitional object
  - M is used to express something other than the cognitional object

  When a speaker is expressing himself, he will use both information that is cognitional object and information that is not cognitional object in combination.
  If the information is not object, it will be something other than the object, which means that it will be cognition itself.
  The cognitional object will hereinafter be abbreviated to “object,” and cognition itself will be abbreviated to "subject".


3. The basic condition for establishing cognition is for an opposite to cognition to exist

  Cognition is established through the opposing existence of subject against object.
  In other words, cognition is established through the constant existence of both subject and the object.
  This is thought to be the basic condition for establishing cognition.

  If an utterance is used to express the speaker’s cognition and only the object is expressed with subject being eradicated, only one side of the cognition can be expressed.
  Expressing the contents of cognition means that the object must be expressed together with subject, or, to put it another way, both sides of cognition must be expressed together.
  Subject and the opposing object, or both sides of cognition, are set as "opposing cognition" below.


4. Multiple forms of M

  When we cognize an object “yama”, what we utter "Yama" without any specific intonation could be an utterance as subject has been eradicated.
  On the other hand, cognitional object “yama” when expressed together with M forms, such as in the case of “yama da”, “yama datta”, “yama ka”, “yama ne”, “yama sa”, “yama kamo” or “yama daro”, produces an expression that contains an opposing cognition by adding “da” or other forms of subject.

  Opposing cognition is also established even when “da”, “ka” or other M forms are eradicated as long as a specific intonation is added. This is achieved with such emphatic intonation forms as “yama?” and “yama!”
  “Yama?” is very similar to “yama ka” and “yama!” is similar to “yama da.”
  Intonation therefore has the same ability as M to complete an expression, so it may be regarded as a form of M.

  In the same way, “ah!” and “oh” when used in the context of “Aa, yama” and “Oo, yama” are also forms of M. Leaving a certain period of silence to encourage a response from the listener, as in “….yama” is also a form of M.


5. The Future of Grammar

Jomon.net   "Particles" and "conjugational suffixes" are also recognized as forms of M as same as "intonation" and "interjections", etc.. And I believe that studying just how well cognition itself can be expressed as information of utterance is a viable direction for future research into grammar.